Leveraging dual-polarization performance designed to deliver exceptional accuracy, the X-band Weather Radar delivers clean data to increase safety and improve operational efficiency.
X-band utilizes simple site selection, automatic and continuous calibration, easy installation and integration into existing networks, a simplified signal path and new measurement methods to make this technology industry-leading.
Remote operation and diagnostics reduce the need for site visits and empower decision-makers with high-quality data, 24/7 availability, and improved sensitivity.
Ride the X-band wave and join the webinar to learn more.
Please join us for a 30-minute webinar to learn
Who should attend:
Everybody who wants to learn more about meteorological and hydrological surveillance.
Please register and we’ll send you a link to the recording.
Can integrated real time monitoring of weather monitoring with Marine Radar for better sailing or voyage?
At the moment we do not have a facility to integrate weather radar images with an external marine radars (e.g. to display data from the two systems simultaneously on the same screen) However, the radar software utility can run in parallel with the marine radar and weather radar information can be monitored with separate software utility for example to optimize ship routes.
We use X band radar but for navigation
Are x bands products the same as c band? Can they be integrated in the same final image?
Yes, the same products can be derived from both X and C band data. Some characteristics can be different (e.g. range, velocity). Data from C and X band radars can also be integrated in the final image, for example in the form radar composites.
What is use x - band radar rather than hydrology in tropical area ?
X band is well suited for short-range hydrological applications even in tropical areas. The range of observations is shorter than that of C-band radars. However, it is easier to site the X band radar close to area of interest, for example, close to a hydrological catchment area. The close distance improves the overall quality of rainfall observations in the area of interest, because the radar beam propagates closer to the ground level.
What is the beamwidth of the Vaisala X-band?
We have two antenna options with different beam widths: 2.4 m antenna with 1-degree beam width or 1.4 m antenna with approximately 1.8 degree beam width.
Is VAISALA thinking about an Mobile X-Band Meteorological Radar for Military Aplications? It also could be used to substitute, temporaly, some S-Band ou C-Band Radar for maintenance!!
Vaisala WRS400 X-band radar is primarily designed for fixed installations. The radar can be relatively easily transported to a new location, but a solution for quick mobile transportation is currently not available (e.g. trailer mounted solution). We are constantly developing the product further and a proper mobile solution is definitely one of the potential development options.
Thank you for the webinar. Can I ask you about the orographic interference on the radar signal?
Orographic beam blocking is often a problem in mountainous areas. If the radar is located in a hilly/mountainous area, it is important to install the radar on a relatively high place to ensure a clear and unobscured observation horizon (e.g. on the top of the hill/mountain). If you are unsure of the suitable location for your radar installation, Vaisala can provide guidance on a suitable radar site in your area.
Are there economical studies or reports compairing losses with and without radars? If so, could you please send me references.
Weather radar is part of modern weather observation infrastructure. Economincal studies for the value of meterological infrastrucutre exists, for example:
Rogers, David P., and Vladimir V. Tsirkunov. Weather and climate resilience: Effective preparedness through national meteorological and hydrological services. The World Bank, 2013.
There are not many any studies that would explicitly estimate the value of radars with/without weather radars. However, the following study provides a cost-benefit analysis of weather radars from the viewpoint of agriculture:
Kragt, Marit, and Thayse Nery de Figueiredo. "Estimating the economic benefits from weather radar investments in the Western Australian wheatbelt." (2019).
which type of radar is suitable for detecting wind shear
Both C and X band radars can be applied in wind shear detection, for example at an airport. However, X band has the benefit of smaller civil work requirements and lower costs. It is also slightly more sensitive instrument that is a benefit in wind shear detection. C band covers larger ranges than X band (e.g. up to 250 km or longer), but usually large range is not needed in windshear detection at the airports.
Please send me recording on my email
The recording of the webinar will be available for you and your colleagues to view after the live presentation. A separate email about the recording will be automatically sent to your email.
What is the sensitivity of WRS400 at its maximum range?
Approximately -3.5 dBZ @ 100 km with 2.4 m antenna and 400 + 400 W transmitter option. However, this sensitivity estimate becomes more accurate once we have more measurement data available for our analysis.
what is the side lobe ratio of antenna
Peak side lobe level at main polarization planes is better than -25 dB (3 dB reference point)
What are the real-time calibration methods available with WRS400 system?
Vaisala WRS400 measures each transmitted output pulse and adjusts the calibration level accordingly (both H and V channeles are calibrated separately). For example, if the transmitter signal power level drops due to transmitter malfunctioning (very unlikely event!), the measured transmit pulse power takes this adjustment into account in the radar data automatically. Products such as the rainfall intensity products are calibrated in real time with this approach. We still recommend a more comprehensive additional calibration of the radar with a separate signal generator during the annual maintenance visit.
How does your X band radar perform differential reflectivity calibration?
Zdr calibration is performed similar to our C-band radar systems through an automatic calibration ZDRcal utility. During the calibration the antenna is pointed vertically in precipitation and ZDR data are collected and averaged for a complete 360 degree rotation to obtain the ZDR offset.
What is the experience with presence of biological scatterers such as insects and birds, to what extent are they captured?
Biological scatterers are often seen in clear air situations. The radar beam increases in altitude with distance so scatterers are normally seen at relatively close range from the radar (usually not beyond 100 km from the radar). It is difficult to see small amounts of birds, but larger flocks are often seen for example during major bird migrations. For example, in Finland birds are often seem during the spring and summer time, as demonstrated by this recent tweet by Finnish Meteorological Institute
Data in this example is from a Vaisala C-band radar system, but similar information can be acquired with an X-band radar system.
For further information, we recommend to take a look at the material at the webpages of ENRAM research network (European Network for the Radar surveillance of Animal Movement). http://www.enram.eu/
could you please add some details to the subject o solid state transmitter? Thank you
Solid state transmitter is a new technology. Instead of a tube based solution, the transmitted microwave pulses are generated by a high power solid state amplifier. Solid state transmitters last longer than traditional radar transmitters, they have no expensive consumable parts as opposed to tube transmitters. Additionally, solid state radars are typically based on several transmitter modules. This improves reliability of the radar system further – if one of the transmitter modules is not working, the radar can still continue operations with limited performance until the issue is solved (graceful degradation). This is not possible with conventional solutions based on a single transmitter. Solid state transmitters have lower peak power than traditional tube transmitters. Therefore, high sensitivity requires transmitting long pulses to achieve sufficient average output power. This means that so called pulse compression algorithm is needed to reach good range resolution.
Regarding wind turbines interference with radars, I recall that the recommendation is to avoid installation approximately 20 km for C-band radars, and 30 km for S-band radars. What about X-Band radars ?
Correct, EUMETNET OPERA programme has stated these recommendations. We do not have detailed analysis on the effect of turbines on X band radar data, but it is expected to be similar to C band. Thererfore, adopting the same recommendations as with a C band radar would be a good first step. However, it is good to note that the exact effect depends on the site and application area (e.g. what antenna elevations are used, how high the turbines are in relation to the radar site). Also, Vaisala WR signal processor has algoirithms to mitigate the effect of wind turbines. The following study shows our experiences of windmill clutter filtering using Vaisala WRM200 radar in Spain, Galicia. In particular, it shows that relevant radar information can be restored despite the significant number of nearby windmills. http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/erad2014/programme/ExtendedAbstracts/188_Keranen.pdf
What is the maximum distance it can cover?
Most significant phenomena can be covered up to 100 km in range. The radar can be configured to cover even further distances but it reduces the wind detection capability as well as the sensitivity of the radar system at far ranges.
What is the unambiguous velocity you can retrieve with the solid state transmitter?
The same unambiguous velocity can be achieved with a solid state transmitter as with other technologies (e.g. Magnetron). Minimum unambiguous doppler range of Vaisala WRS400 is approximately 64 m/s at 70km using dual PRF techniques.
How significant is the attenuation of Viasala WRS400?
There can be some attenuation in heavy rainfall. The attenuation can occasionally be significant in strong storm cells. However, this attenuation can be corrected, to certain extent, with a dual polarization based attenuation correction algorithm. An attenuation correction algorithm has been available in Vaisala RVP signal processors for more than ten years and employed successfully for example in Vaisala C-band radar systems. The same attenuation correction algorithm is also available in Vaisala WRS400 X band radar.
What is the maximum resolution available in the Vaisala X band..?
The most significant feature in this regards is antenna beam width that defines the resolution in angular direction. Vaisala WRS400 has a high-resolution 1 degree beam width, that ensures approximately 1 km resolution at the distance of 60 km from the radar. Closer to the radar the azimuthal (anglular) resolution is better (e.g. 300 m @ 20 km). The range resolution is a configurable parameter, and it can be for example 75-250 m.
Hello, How is the atenuation on X-band Radar?
Yes, there can be some attenuation in heavy rainfall. However, this attenuation can be corrected (to certain extent) with a dual polarization based attenuation correction algorithm. An attenuation correction algorithm has been available in Vaisala RVP signal processors for more than ten years, and it has been successfully employed, for example, in Vaisala C-band radar systems. The same attenuation correction algorithm is also available in Vaisala WRS400 X band radar.
Is WRS400 capable to perform vertical profile at 90 deg elev for Zdr calibration?
Yes, this is the way we do Zdr calibration in both Vaisala X and C band radars. Zdr calibration is performed through an automatic calibration ZDRcal utility. During the calibration the antenna is pointed vertically in precipitation and ZDR data are collected and averaged for a complete 360 degree rotation to obtain the ZDR offset.
how dual polarization works in X band Radar?
Generally, speaking dual polarization works in an X-band weather radar system similarly to C or S band dual polarization radar systems. A good introduction to dual polarization is given for example in this Youtube videos:
In Vaisala WRS400, dual polarization transmission is based on two independent SSPA (Solid state power amplifier) transmitters, one for horizontal and one for vertical channel that transmit microwave pulses at X band frequency.
What type of solid state devices are being used ??
GaN transistors are used in the SSPA units.
Does the software allow it to be formatted for National Weather Service AWIPS visualization?
The visualization capability depends on the supported input data formats by AWIPS. Vaisala radar software can output several data formats for the integration with 3rd party systems. For example, Vaisala IRIS can output NEXRAD Level 2, HDF5, and NetCDF formats. If some of some of these formats is accepted by AWIPS then integration is possible.
Do you combine x-band radar with longer wavelength radar? How do you handle differences in reflectivity due to attenuation?
Yes, X band radar can be combined with C or S band radar data for example in the form or radar composites / mosaics. It is good to note that attenuation can be corrected to certain extent with attenuation correction methods. Moreover, when combining data in radar composites, Vaisala IRIS software can be configured to prioritize data from C or S band radar system. For example, the algorithm can take the maximum reflectivity in the areas where both C and X band radars overlap.
Whats the dBZ level of clear air at each of the following: X, Ka and W band?
Unfortuntaly, there is no simple answer to this complex question. dBz of clear air is not constant, it depends on humidity, changes in refractive index, turbulence etc.
Are X-band radar reliable for detecting freezing rain?
Dual polarization weather radar can provide indicative information on freezing rain. For example, certain dual polarization characteristics combined with information from surface weather stations can indicate potential of freezin rain, but accurate detection is a challenging problem.
Can the X-band be used for determination of fine particulate movement and /or concentration.
X band is primarily designed for detecting larger precipitation particles and fine particles such as aerosols that are typically transparent to X band. For such application area, we recommend for example Vaisala-Leosphere scanning wind lidar systems.
What is the maximum power requirement for the entire RADAR system..?
Power consumption of WRS400 radar system is approximately 1100 W.
how is real time caliberation carried out
The radar measures each transmitted output pulse and adjusts the calibration level accordingly (both H and V calibrated seperatelty). For example, if the transmitter signal power level drops due to transmitter malfunctioning (very unlikely event!), the measured transmit pulse power takes this adjustment into account in the radar data automatically. Products such as the rainfall intensity products are calibrated in real time with this approach. We still recommend a more comprehensive additional calibration of the radar with a separate signal generator during the annual maintenance visit.
For dual polarization, is alternating H/V possible or simultaneous H/V transmit only?
Yes, both alternating H/V and simultaneous H/V transmit are available in WRS400.
What is beam width of the Vaisala X-band radar?
Does the Radar have built in redundancy in Transmitter, receiver, processing?
Yes, there is built in reduncency in the transmitter. The transmitter includes several internally connected GaN transistors that ensure that the transmitter can still operate with limited capability even if one the transistors is not working. Moreover, we use independent transmitters for both horizontal and vertical channels that increase the reliability of the system further. If one of the trasnmitters fails, radar can still continue operations with the other transmitters in the single polarization mode. Automatic real-time calibration ensures that the radar is calibrated properly even if transmitter power changes due to transmitter issues.
Receiver has separate indenpendent channels for both H and V. It can operate with one channel only, so there is redundancy in this regards as well.
How long is the estimated range of X-Band radar from Vaisala. In Brazil (Minas Gerais) we have been observing that Vaisala has developed technologies that keep data quality on C-band radars, that expand range from traditional range , around 120 km, to 200/240 km. That signal processing technology has been applied on X-band Vaisala equipments?
Yes, the same methods are applicable with WRS400 X-band (e.g. attenuation correction and enhanced sensitivity). Typical range of X-band observations is approximately 100 km.
Does Vaisala provide any public domain Wx Radar real-time data feeds.
Unfortunately, X-band radar radar data feed is not yet publicly available. We may add a public feed later on to our IRIS Focus demo page available at iris.vaisala.com
Any specific license permissions need to be taken, to operate these radar from some agency in India?
There are often local requirements regarding the operation of radars (or any radio transmitters) that depend on the country. The permission needs to be confirmed with the local frequency authorities.
My responsibilities include identifying office buildings that are in need of sandbagging when major flooding is likely. Do you have any thoughts on how we might could use X-band radar in identifying buildings that are at high risk to see significant flood impact.
X-band radar data can be used with hydrological models that can predict flooding. Such models are typically developed by specialist hydrological companies or institutes, and require detailed data from city infrastructure (streets, drainage, etc.). X-band radar obviously does not provide any data regarding the buildings and infrastructure, but the forecasted water level in the event of flooding could be used to identify which buildings need to be sandbagged.
could you please say some specific usage and advantages in using aviation forecast
Vaisala WRS400 weather radar can support the detection of several weather phenomena that pose risk to aviation activities. For example, wind shear detection and alerts at airports, or the detection and nowcasting of local thunderstorms, so that aviation operators can re-route aircraft accordingly. We will give another webinar in June, that will focus on the use of X-band to support Aviation weather activities.
what`s requirements(preparation) before installation of this X band Radar?
At least a small gravel road access to the site (for transport equipment and for a crane during the installation), power facility and data communication. Also the radar requires a tower or a building rooftop where the radar equipment is installed.
What is the electrical power requirement for the radar?
Single phase power. Power consumption of WRS400 radar system is approximately 1100 W.
Will IRIS software support display of WRS 400?
Yes, the same IRIS software is used with WRS400 as with other Vaisala radar systems. IRIS can also simultaneously process, display and merge data from several Vaisala radar systems (e.g. C and X band radars)
How better are the dualpol algorithms in Xband radars
Same dual polarization algorithms are available for C- S- and X-band radars. Some of the parameters used in those algorithms may require adjustment for each wavelenght to provide most accurate result.
You have mention about automatic calibration in x band radar, what kind of automatic calibration do you have?
The radar measures each transmitted output pulse and adjusts the calibration level accordingly. For example, if the transmitter signal power level drops due to transmitter malfunctioning (very unlikely event!), the measured transmit pulse power takes this adjustment into account in the radar data automatically. Products such as the rainfall intensity products are calibrated in real time with this approach. We still recommend a more comprehensive additional calibration of the radar with a separate signal generator during the annual maintenance visit.
Is there a reference for learning about the real-time calibration feature?
In South America there are many X-band WR - is this simply due to financial aspects or would someone prefer X-band in the tropics for some methodological reason...?
Financial aspects could be one reason. X band radar has lower investment and life cycle costs than C or S band radars. Another reason could be lack of information sharing. In some countries, data from large national radar networks may not be shared among other relevant organizations such as local hydrological institutes or airports. Therefore, they may end up in investing in an X-band radar that covers only the local area.
There are also some methodological benefits. For example, for efficient wind shear detection it is importatnt to have the radar close the airport, and relying on a distant C band radar may not be an option. In these cases local X band provides better performance and value for money.
does the rvp have an unfolding algorithm?
Yes, rvp has dual prf velocity unfolding method available that supports 3:2, 4:3, or 5:4 dual prf ratios. These ratios give factors of two, three, and four times velocity expansion compared the standard single prf processing.
Does the x - band radar better than s - band radar in tropical area those need long range ?
For long-range observations (250-450 km) we recommend Vaisala C band dual polarization radars, even in the tropical areas. Nowadays, C band technology provides excellent performance, but has significantly lower investment and life cycle costs than S band. Modern dual polarization technology with advanced signal processing provides excellent performance in heavy tropical rainfall.
Vaisala C band radars are extremely reliable and durable, as demonstrated, for example, by our experiences in Bahamas during Hurricane Dorian. X band is a recommended solution when the range of 100 km or less sufficient for the application.
is there a mobile version of X-band radar available ?
Vaisala WRS400 X-band radar is primarily designed for fixed installation. The radar can relatively easily transported to a new location, but a solution for quick mobile transportation is currently not available (e.g. trailer mounted solution). We are constantly developing the product further and a proper mobile solution is definitely one of the potential development options.
For TDWR applications, Does Vaisala suggests the X-Band or the C-Band?
X band radar is an excellent choice if you need to provide wind shear alerts in the vicinity of the airport, and detect other phenomena approximately up to 100 km in range. X band is also slightly more sensitive to detect wind shear than a C band radar.
C band radar can be used in similar application to detect wind shear close to the airport. Additionally, C band radar can cover larger distances to detect for example local thunderstorms up to 250 km or more. C band is also larger and more expensive than X band radar.
Please mention some good reference books to understand these radars and their applications - for novice person...
These books are great sources:
Fabry, Frédéric. Radar meteorology: principles and practice. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Rinehart, Ronald E. Radar for meteorologists. University of North Dakota, Office of the President, 1991
Also, free online material is available at WMO pages at https://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/IMOP/publications/IOM-88_TM-Radars/IOM-88_Module-F.pdf
what about regular maintainance of X band radar system operating in a service or authority? it is necessary an technical team be developed?
Vaisala WRS400 X band weather radar is very low in maintenance. An annual one-day maintenance visit is sufficient. Vaisala can also provide a service contract to cover the required maintenance needs, so it is not necessary to have own technicians to maintain the radar. We can also provide maintenance training, so that the customer can use own recourses for maintenance.
Could I obtain a copy of this presentation? Please provide the reference for the Dallas CASA network. Thanks!
The recording of the webinar will be available for you and your colleagues to view after the live presentation. A separate email about the recording will be automatically sent to your email.
The CASA reference is: Chandrasekar, V., Haonan Chen, and Brenda Philips
"Principles of high-resolution radar network for hazard mitigation and disaster management in an urban environment." Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II 96 (2018): 119-139
The article is available at https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jmsj/96A/0/96A_2018-015/_pdf/-char/en
does it require a radome?
Yes, the WRS400 radar requires a radome to protect the antenna from wind, rain and other environmental conditions.
narrow beamer is better accuracy?
Correct, narrow radar beam means better accuracy and resolution of weather observations.
Would the new Vaisala X-band radar have increased sensitivity at long ranges compared to legacy X-band radars (especially with the larger 2.4 m antenna)? If so would it mean longer useful range and what would that maximum range be?
This depends on the type of the legacy system. There are many types of X band radar systems avaialable on the market. Vaisala WRS400 is a high-resolution high-sensitivity X band radar that can measure the most relevant weather phenomena up to 100 km in range (typical operational range). Thanks to the long pulse and pulse compression, high sensitivity and high radial resolution can be achieved.
what is the weight of WRS400
Aproximately 370 kg, radom approx. 300 kg, with 2.4 m antenna option. The weight of the radar with smaller 1.4 m antenna is a few tens kilograms less and the radome weights approximately 200 kg.
what is the trend for the competition for narrow beaming?
Narrow beam results in better resolution and sensitivity, higher performance of the radar
the radar software can define only radial velocity or actual velocity of particles?
Radar measures radial wind based on Doppler information. However, radar includes software algorithms to estimate 2D wind vectors fields or vertical wind profiles of wind vectors (including both speed and direction, i.e. true wind). However, as in all weather radar systems, these winds are estimates, not true measurements.
What is the power handling capability of x band radar ?
Maximum power consumption of WRS400 radar system is approximately 3600 W.
I would like to ask you what is the lifetime of this radar and the price of this approximately! Thanks.
With proper maintenance and spare part inventory radar has been designed to operate 15-20 years.
How could ground truth calibration be done with the X band radar?
Weather radar is typically calibrated with signal generator that feeds a known reference signal to the radar receiver. There is specific sofware utility to assist this process.
California has increased dangers from both wildfires and earthquakes. Both hazards have the phenomena of ionized air rising from the phenomena. Wildfires have rising ionized air from the combustion process. Earthquakes have recently shown ionized oxygen generated by deep underground electrical currents. These ions rise and influence the total electron content of the ionosphere. Can X-Band detect a rising cloud of ionized gases? individual size of the molecule is too small, but can it detect a concentrated cloud of ionized gas?
This would be a very specific application where we have no experience. Weather radar receives return echo from relatively large scatterers such as precipitation particles (rain, ice, etc). We have not tested X-band weather radar in such application area, but our estimate is that ionized gas would not be detectable by an X band radar. Perhaps a millimeter wavelength (e.g. W band) radar could be better suited for such application.
How much time is required for installation of WRS400?
The WRS400 can be installed in a day, if the site has been prepared. It is also useful to consider the overall delivery time. As we ramp up the production of WRS400 we will reach a delivery time is 4 months from the order (+ shipping time).
Hoe\w robust is your new radar under continuous sector scans?
Yes, the radar has been designed to meet operative reliability requirements with continuous scheduled sectors scans, or other scan modes.
do you have combined sw application with lidar?
Yes, IRIS Focus weather radar software can also display information from Vaisala-Leosphere lidars. For example, lidar-based radial Doppler winds and wind products (shear alerts, 2D wind field estimates) can be displayed together with radar information in the same software.
Have you got any studies on radar beam attenuation compensation?
Attenuation correction has been available in Vaisala RVP signal processors for more than ten years and employed successfully for example in Vaisala C-band radar systems. The same attenuation correction algorithm is also available in Vaisala WRS400 X band radar. The performance of the algorithm has been studied for in this study:
Panov,S., R. Keranen, and V. Chandrasekar, 2008: Assessment of the Polarimetric Attenuation Correction Implementation in the RVP8 Signal Processor. 5th European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology, Helsinki, Finland.
The performance of the attenuation correction has also been verified in real-life operational environments. For example, the recent Hurricane Dorian verified that the attenuation correction performs very well in heavy tropical rain.
is there any algorithm to increase the distance it measure and attenuation compensation in heavy rainfall situation
Yes. attenuation correction algorithm has been available in Vaisala RVP signal processors for more than ten years and employed successfully for example in Vaisala C-band radar systems. The same attenuation correction algorithm is also available in Vaisala WRS400 X band radar.
How to calibrate both the pulses in SSR
The radar is equipped with a continous real-time calibration facility. The radar measures each transmitted output pulse and adjusts the calibration level of both H and V channels in real time. For example, if the transmitter signal power level drops due to transmitter malfunctioning (very unlikely event!), the measured transmit pulse power takes this adjustment into account in the radar data automatically. Products such as the rainfall intensity products are calibrated in real time with this approach. We still recommend a more comprehensive additional calibration of the radar with a separate signal generator during the annual maintenance visit.
could radar data from another brands be integrated with Vaisala weather radars?
Yes, Vaisala IRIS weather radar software is capable of integrating radar data from 3rd party radars as long as the data is provided in standard data formats, such as, Odim HDF5, or Nexrad Archive2, or UF.
We would highly recommend integration through the Odim HDF5 radar data format developed in collaboration by several European meteorological services through EUMETNET Opera programme. It is a well-maintained data format and continuously developed further by the Opera consortium
does the products are gis compatabile real time
Vaisala IRIS weather radar software can output certain products in GeoTIFF format that is gis compatible. Also, the software can output netCDF and HDF5 formats with georeference information to be used in gis applications.
Pekka Rossi, PhD, is a weather radar application manager with the special area of expertise in weather radar based nowcasting. Before joining Vaisala, Pekka worked for six years as a weather radar expert at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), where his duties included scientific research of weather radar and lightning-based applications.
Pekka received his MSc in Electrical Engineering from Helsinki University of Technology in 2009, and his PhD in Automation and Systems Technology from Aalto University in 2015. The topic of his PhD thesis relates to automatic nowcasting of thunderstorms using weather radar and lightning location data. During his PhD studies he also completed a minor in Meteorology at University of Helsinki.